Natural Disasters and Child Health
The research on childhood exposure to natural disasters has rejuvenated the public policy debate of targeting most vulnerable subpopulations. Since at least some of these disasters could be attributed to human interactions with the environment that paves way to climate change, the implications of experiencing such disasters could be vastly different. This paper empirically investigates the exposure to a series of natural disasters on child health. I find irreversible damage arising from loss of human capital. Furthermore, the effect is concentrated on girls. On a broader spectrum, the long-term effects could be even more pronounced as these children grow older. I find that limited access to credit is pathways through which exposure to natural disasters manifest linear growth retardation in children.
Keywords: Childhood Shocks; Stunting; Indonesia; Credit Availability
JEL Codes: I15, J13, J16, O53
Natural Disaster, Economic Loss and Mental Health
with Prabal De (under review)
In this paper we estimate the causal effect of a natural disaster on mental health. Using longitudinal data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey, we investigate how the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake impacted the mental health of individuals who were exposed to the earthquake to varying degrees. We also explore economic losses suffered from earthquake as a potential pathway to mental health deterioration. The results show that individuals exposed to the earthquake had a significantly higher likelihood of being screened for depression, and such effects were amplified by their experiences of economic loss. Differences in mental health outcomes between these two groups, however, were not significant during the pre-earthquake period. Finally, differences in the likelihood of being screened for depression decreased over time, demonstrating resilience among the individuals in our sample. Therefore, we can identify both the strongest adverse effects of a natural disaster on mental health in the immediate aftermath of such disasters, and their decline in strength over time.
Keywords: Earthquake; Depression; Economic Loss; Indonesia
JEL Codes: I15, J18, Q54
The Educational and Fertility Effects of Sibling Deaths
with Marc Rockmore and Willa Friedman (under review)
An emerging literature finds that childhood exposure to adverse events determines adult outcomes and behavior. We extend this research to understand the influence of witnessing a sibling death as a child on subsequent educational and fertility outcomes in Indonesia. Using panel data and a sibling fixed effects model, we identify this relationship based on variation in the age of surviving children within the same family. Our findings strongly support the importance and persistence of adverse childhood experiences. In particular, for surviving sisters, witnessing a sibling death reduces the years of completed education and the likelihood of completing secondary schooling. The effect on surviving brothers is more muted. A potential channel for this result is that women respond by changing their fertility behavior. While surviving the death of a sibling has little effect on desired fertility levels, we find evidence that surviving sisters start a family about 3-4 years earlier. This suggests that interventions targeted at early-life outcomes may have important ripple effects and that the full impact of health interventions may not be visible until decades afterwards.
Keywords: Child mortality; Siblings; Education; Fertility
JEL Codes: I10, J13, J16, O53
Risk and Time Preferences after Natural Disasters
with Marc Rockmore
By studying the short and medium run effects of the exposure to one of the largest recent earthquakes in Indonesia on risk and time preferences, we contribute to the literature on the stability of these parameters and the duration of the effects. We find a strong gender-specific effect one year after exposure which completely disappears within 8 years. Our analysis points to the importance of recovery efforts in mitigating the duration of the earthquakes effects on these parameters. We also rule out the mental health as a potential channel.
Keywords: Shocks; Behavioral Parameters; Duration; Earthquake
JEL Codes: I15, J13, J16, O53